Strengthen governance

Marlon del Aguila / CIFOR
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Many other solutions are only possible given adequate organizational power to organize and implement them. In many of our cases, the institutions that would typically be responsible for dealing with specific problems were not able to do so.

Some agencies don’t have the resources or willpower to enact adequate risk governance; other times, it’s a matter of coordination and organizational capacity. In society, we transfer risk responsibility to these organizations. Therefore, strengthening institutions themselves is critical for preparing for and responding to disasters.


In summer 2021, air temperatures in Canada broke records multiple days in a row as a powerful heatwave spread over the Pacific Northwest, registering over 600 heat-related deaths and setting an all-time high-temperature record for the country at 49.6°C (121.3°F).

On 14 August 2021, Haiti was hit by a magnitude 7.2 earthquake with an epicentre in the Canal du Sud (120 km west of the capital, Port-au-Prince). The earthquake killed over 2,200 people and injured more than 12,000.

In summer 2021, drought and low humidity combined with record-breaking heat of up to 48.8°C (119.8°F) led to fire outbreaks across the Mediterranean countries, killing more than 100 people and burning more than 620,000 ha of land in July and August

Southern Madagascar’s worst drought in 40 years led to severe stress on vegetation, triggering a drastic decline in rice, maize and cassava production. By December 2021, more than 1.6 million people were estimated to have been suffering high levels of food insecurity.

Explore more from the 2023 report