Plan for risks

Kunga Tashi Lepcha / Climate Visuals Countdown
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Hazards wreak particular havoc when they impact infrastructure, such as roads, buildings and communication systems, which are critical, particularly in times of disaster.

Our built environment should be designed with an awareness of the potential risks it may be exposed to, ideally incorporating resilience to these risks from their inception. This involves the actual physical building materials, the designs from which they are built and how they are spatially distributed across the landscape.


On 14 August 2021, Haiti was hit by a magnitude 7.2 earthquake with an epicentre in the Canal du Sud (120 km west of the capital, Port-au-Prince). The earthquake killed over 2,200 people and injured more than 12,000.

In summer 2021, drought and low humidity combined with record-breaking heat of up to 48.8°C (119.8°F) led to fire outbreaks across the Mediterranean countries, killing more than 100 people and burning more than 620,000 ha of land in July and August

During the 2020-2021 typhoon season, for the first time in 56 years, no typhoon made landfall on Taiwan, leading to one of the worst droughts in the island’s history. As reservoirs fell below 5% capacity, more than one million households and businesses had to ration water.

On 15 January 2022, the Hunga-Tonga-Hunga-Ha'apai volcano eruption was felt across the Pacific Ocean and beyond, releasing energy equivalent to hundreds of Hiroshima nuclear explosions and creating supersonic air pressure waves that were observed from space.

Explore more from the 2023 report